Wednesday, 31 August 2016

Doulton & Co.

This post arose from Kris contacting me asking for info on bricks made by Doulton & Co. Much has been written about Doulton's salt-glazed pipes, bottles, jars & chinaware etc, but very little about the making of their bricks. So with some information previously found & with digging a little deeper into the web, I have now been able to put this post together.

I first start with a little bit of background information on how Doulton & Co. began. If you wish to read a more detailed account of the company I have pasted six links at the end of the post.

John Doulton established the beginnings of the Doulton empire in 1815 when together with his life savings of £100 pounds he became a partner in a pottery owned by Martha Jones & John Watts situated on Vauxhall Walk, London & this partnership operated under the style of Jones, Watts & Doulton producing stoneware, stoneware bottles & salt glazed sewer pipes. Mrs Jones left the company in 1820 & the company continued as Doulton & Watts. 1826 sees the move to High Street, Lambeth & by 1834 the company was employing 12 men & operating 2 kilns per week. There is as yet no reference to the company making bricks in the information found for Lambeth, but the option of them doing so cannot be ruled out. An air brick made at Lambeth can be seen at this link. & scroll down to Doulton Lambeth.

Five of John's six sons join him at the works, with his eldest John junior & second son Henry being the main players in the running of the Company at a later date. Henry joins as an apprentice in 1835 & it was to be Henry who would be the driving force at a later date in taking the company forward in producing artistic pottery, commemorative & ornamental table ware as well as being the head of the company.

In 1846 & while still having some connection in helping to run his father's company Doulton & Watts, Henry sees the potential in exploiting the extra need to produce salt-glazed sanitary pipes & wares to replace London's crumbling sewers & in doing so forms his own company on land which was to become Albert Embankment to produce these salt-glazed wares.

Further expansion by Doulton & Watts under the guidance of Henry Doulton saw the opening of new works in Rowley Regis in 1849, St. Helens run by his elder brother John junior also in 1849 & Smethwick in 1850 to produce salt-glazed pipes & associated wares. Industrial stoneware & ceramics & terracotta tiles were also made at Rowley Regis. The Smethwick works only ever produced salt glazed pipes & from a web article the Brasshouse Lane (now Pottery Lane) works was on the north bank of the Birmingham Canal & closed in 1919, but I have a trade directory entry still listing this works in 1921. 

Back to 1853 & John Watts retires from D & W & the company changed it's name to Doulton & Co. At some unknown point in time the three business of Doulton & Watts (Lambeth, Rowley Regis & Smethwick works), John Doulton junior's St. Helens works & Henry Doulton's Albert Embankment pipeworks all came together & trade as one company, Doulton & Co. Ltd.

It is now that we find in trade directories starting in 1872 that blue bricks are recorded as being made in Rowley Regis. A 1876 advert records Staffordshire blue bricks are for sale from the St. Helens works & then in a 1895 trade directory entry for the St. Helens works it lists that red / blue / ornamental & glazed bricks plus tiles are made, again I believe the blue bricks were being made at Rowley Regis because the type of clay needed to make blue bricks is chiefly found in the West Midlands. I have to note that bricks may have been made at Rowley Regis & St. Helens before the dates found, if so the new dates will be added to the post at a later date.

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

Three examples of blue bricks made at the Rowley Regis works near Dudley. The Doulton one may have been made during the time when John senior was running the company & the H. Doulton ones when Henry was in charge. 

Photo taken at the Bursledon Brick Museum. 

Photo taken at the Black Country Living Museum. 

Trade directory entries in the brick & tile makers section for the Rowley Regis works all record blue in brackets for blue bricks, but there are various names used for the name of the works & there was a company name change in 1908. 
So theses are listings :-
Kelly's 1872 & 76 - Henry Doulton & Co. Knowle Pottery, Rowley Regis & at Smethwick (pipes). 
Kelly's 1880 edition has the addition of - & Birmingham & chief office Lambeth Pottery, London SE.
Kelly's 1884 to 1904 editions - Henry Doulton & Co. Birmingham Pottery, Rowley Regis & at Smethwick & Birmingham, chief office, Lambeth Pottery, London SE.
Kelly's 1908 - Doulton & Co. Ltd, Birmingham Pottery, Rowley Regis & Granville Wharf, Granville Street, Birmingham, chief office, Royal Doulton Pottery, London SE.
Kelly's 1912 - Doulton & Co. Ltd, Rowley Regis Pottery, Springfield, Dudley; Granville Wharf, Granville Street & Paradise Street, Birmingham; chief office, Royal Doulton Pottery, London SE.
Kelly's 1916 - Doulton & Co. Ltd, Rowley Regis Pottery, Springfield Pottery, Dudley & Granville Street, Birmingham; chief office, Royal Doulton Pottery, London SE.
Kelly's 1921 -  Doulton & Co. Ltd, Springfield, Dudley & Smethwick & Granville Wharf, Granville Street, Birmingham; chief office, Royal Doulton Pottery, London SE.

There are no more trade directory entries in the Brick & Tile Makers section after 1921 for the company. 

So the names of Knowle Pottery, Birmingham Pottery, Rowley Regis Pottery & Springfield Pottery have been used to describe this vast works complex. As you will see from the several maps that I have used below, the 1881 map shows that there were originally two brick works on this site, one was at the side of Springfield Colliery & the other one was next to the pipe works & this part of the site is shown as the Birmingham Pottery. From the 1901 map it only shows one brickworks in operation. From different web articles the consensus on the name of the works where blue bricks & terracotta tiles were made is Springfield Brick & Tile Works. The different departments on this vast site made use of the Dudley No.2 Canal to bring clay in & transport their finished produces out with the Company having it's own wharfs. Although these maps show many clay pits, clay was also brought in to the works by barge using the canal from the Company's own clay pits near Saltwells Wood, Netherton to produce sanitary ware in 1906. The canal continued to be used via the Lappel Tunnel by the company until 1917 when stretches of the canal became unnavigable. The canal was finally abandoned in 1953, but today it is in the process of slowly being restored.
In the link which I have pasted below there are six photos of the Springfield Works in 1915 - just click on view gallery.

This link gives an excellent account of some of Doulton's employees working at the Springfield Works. Just to note that this site contains many adverts, so make sure your mouse pointer does not hover over any of them as they then open up the advert over the text. It is a safe site, you just have to watch out for those pesky adverts. 

I have used the following 4 maps to show how the works changed between 1881 & 1938 & the maps show the various names for the works. I have to note that the areas which I have coloured yellow may not be exact to the land owned by the Company & have been coloured only to indicate the size of this vast works complex.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1881.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1901.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1914.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1938.

Doulton's Rowley Regis Works had closed by 1979 & today this vast site is a mixture of housing & industrial units.

I now move on to the St. Helens works & my first reference in 1853 comes from Grace's Guide which records John Doulton junior as setting up the Liverpool Pottery at St. Helens on Boundary Road, producing earthenware & with offices at 70 Soho Street, Liverpool.
1867 sees John junior together his brothers Henry & John Duneau Doulton purchase lands in Windle, Lancs. from David Gamble. Then further lands where purchased in 1874 & 1879 in St. Helens. The acquisition of these lands I believe was to supplement the works with clay as this works was in a built up area & the site could not be expanded. I then take it that the clay was then delivered to the works via the railway with the company having it's own railway siding. See maps below. The advantage of the works location being in an built up area was it's workers would have lived close by.
My first trade directory entry for John junior, Brothers & Co. is in Worrall's 1871 edition, but it is not for bricks, but it is for glazed stoneware pipes & terracotta chimney pots at the Liverpool Pottery with offices/depot now at 100 Soho Street & a wharf at Canal Bank.

Then my next reference comes in the form of an advert dated 1876 shown below again from Worrall's directory & it advertises Staffordshire blue bricks made at the company's Rowley Regis Works.

My first listing of bricks being made at St. Helens is recored in Slater's 1883 edition as Doulton & Co. branch offices & depot, 100 Soho Street - Red pressed & moulded bricks for shipment from Liverpool, Garston or Widnes. Then in an entry on another page under Brick Manufacturers - Blue, is Doulton & Co. depot 100 Soho Street, Liverpool, works Rowley Regis, Staffordshire. Thus backing up my theory that Rowley Regis made the company's blue bricks & St. Helens works produced the red bricks.

In the Brick Manufacturers section of Slater's 1895 edition it lists Doulton & Co. (pressed, plain, ornamental red & blue : glazed bricks, tiles & c. Boundary Road Brickworks, St Helens. (previously recorded as The Liverpool Pottery in the advert). Again the blue brick reference I believe is that they can supply blue bricks from the St. Helens works. Then in an entry on another page in Slater's 1895 edition, Doulton & Co are listed as brick, glazed stoneware, sanitary pipe & c. manufacturers, Canal Bank west & Boundary Road, St. Helens.  

A red brick variation photographed at Cawarden Reclamation, Rugeley.

The brick above was found on Crosby beach & like the rest of the bricks which can be seen on this beach are well worn by the tide coming in & out.

Two maps dated 1900 & 1925 showing the location of the Boundary Road brickworks in St. Helens. The 1925 map actually records the brick & pipe works as Liverpool Pottery same as the 1876 advert. As previously written, with the location of the works being in a built up area, I believe the clay was brought in by railway wagons right into the works via it's own railway siding.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced with permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1925.

The year the St. Helens works closed is unknown, but could have been in 1969 when Doulton's sold it's pipe interests to Hepworth Pipe, but it may have been earlier. If I do find out, I will update the post.

Links to more information about the many sides of the Doulton empire (except it's bricks).

I wish to thank the following people for the use of their information & maps in bringing this story of the Doulton Company to the web.

Grace's Guide. 

Black Country Bugle.


Vauxhall Society

Dalton Databank

National Library of Scotland & Ordnance Survey - maps.

Sunday, 3 January 2016

Cawarden 2

After finding a great selection of named bricks at Cawarden Reclamation on my last visit, a second trip to Rugeley was always on the cards. So in April 2015 on a glorious day, I revisited the yard & here are some of the finds from that day.

BCM Bentley - The BCM stands for British Clay/Ceramic Manufacturers & was a trade organisation which included many brick companies throughout the UK & was operating in the early 20th century. As well as producing bricks stamped with their own name, all of these companies produced a percentage of their output with BCM before their company or trade name. Very little information can be found on the web for BCM, but I have found an organisation which operates today called the British Ceramic Confederation, who advises & promotes all clay related products & companies. So I am taking it that BCM was the forerunner to BCC.
Bentley Tileries operated the Bradwell Wood Tileries in Tunstall, Stoke on Trent between the late 1920’s & 1966. The works had been previously owned by Joseph Timmis & Sons, who had operated the works since the late 1860's & are recorded in Kelly's 1868 edition at Bradwell Wood Tilieries. The Timmis entry continues to be listed in Kelly's with the last entry being recorded in the 1921 edition. It's in Kelly's 1928 edition that the works is now recorded as Bentley Tilieries. 

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

1900 map showing the location of the works & marked Bradwell Wood Tillieries. Today the A500 cuts through the centre of this site with the remains of the clay pits on the left of the road & on the right where the buildings had once stood, this is now the Longbridge Hayes Industrial Estate.

Around 1867, William Shepherd is recorded as Coal Merchant at Union Wharf, Bilston Road, Wolverhampton. He then started manufacturing bricks around 1892 on Granville Street, Wolverhampton with him then moving to the Elm Farm Brickworks on Dudley Road in 1896. Two years later he opened a second works called the Phoenix Brickworks, also on Dudley Road. William was well regarded & respected by the local business community & he went on to build 500 houses around Wolverhampton, providing them for the working classes. William also established a cycle manufacturing business in the town. William is recorded in Kelly’s 1892 edition as brick manufacturer on Granville Street & living on Bilston Road. Then from 1896 to the 1908 editions he is listed at Elm Tree Farm Brick Works, Wolverhampton. With this brick being stamped JHS Elm Farm, I can only suppose that these are the initials of his son or brother ? I have found a reference to J.H. Shepherd, deceased in 1908 & the disposal of the Elm Farm Brickworks, his home & estate on the National Archives web site. I have two other photos of bricks from this company, one is marked Phoenix & the other William Shepherd, Phoenix Brickworks.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.
On this 1900 map I have marked the Phoenix Works in green, with the entrance to this works via Phoenix Street from Dudley Road. I am not 100% sure of the exact location of the Elm Farm Works, but it could be the area which I have marked in yellow. Today's Elm Farm Road now runs from Dudley Road into the yellow area. Another option is the other Brick Works marked on Dudley Road, which I have coloured blue.   

H. Warrington & Sons works at Berry Hill, Fenton, Stoke on Trent is recorded in Kelly's T. D. from 1896 to 1908 editions. Henry was born 1838 in Cheadle & left school at the age of 13 in 1851 to work for William Bowers who operated Berry Hill Colliery. An associated brickworks had been established by 1870. Henry worked his way up the company eventually succeeding Bowers as the owner of the business some time not long after Bower's death in 1880. The business also included an iron works at Berry Hill but the forges closed around 1900. Henry Warrington employed 1000 men, farmed 400 acres & lived at Fenton Manor House. Henry tragically shot himself on the 2nd of March 1907. After Henry's death the colliery & brickworks are recorded as being owned by John Slater in 1914 with John then forming John Slater Limited in 1918 & this new company also included another colliery at New Haden. Slater's company is next recorded as Berry Hill Collieries Ltd. in the 1920's. I have two entries in Kelly's T.D. in 1928 & 1932 for Berry Hill Collieries Ltd, Berry Hill Brickworks, Stoke. In 1947 the brickworks became a separate company & was renamed Berry Hill Brickworks Ltd. with the colliery being nationalised in that year. This new company expanded in the 1960's & was operating four brickworks. The Berry Hill works closed in the 1970's thus completing 100 years of brick production at the works. The site of the former brickworks is now Fenton Industrial site.
 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

The Oswestry Coal & Brick Co. operated the Drill Colliery & Brickworks at Morda, Oswestry & in the early 1870's the company owned by Stanley Leighton acquired nearby Sweeney Colliery & it's brickworks. On the O.S. map below I have coloured Drill B/W's in yellow & Sweeney B/W's in green. 
Brick production appears to have then been moved from the Drill brickworks to the Sweeney site & this works was then expanded. O. C. & B. Co. then became the Sweeney Brick Co. around 1880. 
The lease & the name of the works changed many more times before the works finally closed in 1926. 
These were :-
Kelly's 1891 edition, Kay & Hindle Ltd. Sweeney Brick & Terra Cotta Works. 
Kelly's 1895 edition, Oswestry Brick, Tile & Terra Cotta Co. Lim. 
1899 to 1907, Sweeney Blue Brick & Terra Cotta Ltd.  
1907 to 1909, New Sweeney Blue Brick & Terra Cotta Ltd.
1911 to 1915, Sweeney (Oswestry) Brick Co. Lim. In Kelly's 1913 edition there is an entry for the company with C.E. Williams as secretary & managing director.
Then the name of the works at it's closure was the New Sweeney Brick & Tile Co. Ltd.
Today houses are built on both brickwork sites.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

George Grubb Dalton, Brick Manufacturer, Builder & Contractor, Linthorpe, Middlesbrough is recorded in the London Gazette as giving Notice of Intended Dividends on the 13th November 1888. In this Notice George is listed as residence at Cambridge Road, Linthorpe & trading in Linthorpe, in Middlesbrough & all of Yorkshire.

George Ball is listed as owner of the Star Brick Works in Linthorpe, Middlesbrough in Bulmer's 1890 edition.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

This 1900 has two brickworks marked in Linthorpe, Middlesbrough of which one could have been owned by G.G. Dalton & the other by George Ball, owner of the Star Brick Works.

Barlow, Wednesbury, no info found for this company.

The Greengate Brick & Tile Co. was in St. Hellens, Lancs. with the company also owning Greengate Colliery. The O.S. map below shows the location of the works in 1900 & was situated close to the vast Ravenshead glass works owned by Pilkingtons. The brickworks was to later become part of Pilkingtons. This link contains an ariel photograph of the works in 1923. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

The Leamore Brick Co. was on Green Lane, Leamore, Walsall & was situated on a 6.5 acre site adjacent to the Wyrley & Essington Canal as shown on the 1900 O.S. map below. The company is listed in Kelly's 1908 & 1912 editions at Birchills, Walsall.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

Also marked next to Leamore  B/W's on this map is Castle Brick Works which I wrote about in my first Cawarden post & can be read at this link.

Richard Mason & Sons, Toll End, Tipton are first recorded in Kelly’s 1884 edition, then the entry from the 1896 edition to the 1916 edition is Mason Ltd, (blue & red), Toll End, Tipton. Marked Crown Brickworks on this 1900 map below, the site is now occupied by Western Power Ltd. on Toll End Road & the former clay pit has now been transformed into Bayley's Pool.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

The Queen Red Facing Brick Co. Ltd is listed in Kelly's 1901 trade directory at Rishton, Blackburn & is shown on the 1900 O.S. Map below. This company appears to have been an unsuccessful venture & was reformed in 1907 by George Knowles as the Queen Brick Co. (Blackburn 1907) Ltd. This set up also failed & went into liquidation in 1909. Today the former brickworks next to the Leeds & Liverpool Canal is open fields with the Whitebirk Industrial Estate situated close by (in the area between the two marked Old Shafts on the 1900 map). The Great Harwood Loop railway line marked on the map also no longer exists. If you check out Google maps you can see that some houses & industrial buildings now occupy the land near to the bottom of the former tramway which ran up the hill to the clay pit & these buildings are accessed via Side Beet Lane.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

Wednesday, 30 September 2015

Sheffield Brickworks - part 1

Twenty Well Stone & Brick Co.

The site of the Twentywell brickworks first started as a quarry on Twentywellsick Lane, Sheffield which is recorded on a 1840 map.
Tedbar John Tinker is recorded as owning the quarry before the railway was built & it maybe the reason that Tedbar built his brickworks to provide the thousands of bricks required to build the nearby Bradway Tunnel.

Michael Hardy who's grandfather worked at this brickworks has recently sent me this 1888 newspaper cutting & information relating to the role played by the Twentywell Brick Works in the construction of the Sheffield to Manchester Railway built between 1888 – 1893. Bricks from Twentywell were used in the construction of the Totley (Bradway) Tunnel.

Twentywellsick which is shown marked on the 1900 map below appears to have come from the 12th century name of the area, Quintinewelle - St. Quentin's Well & now it's modern variation Twentywell. 

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

I have a reference that The Twentywell Stone & Brick Co. first appeared in White's 1872 edition & the first trade directory that I have is Kelly's 1876 edition & the works is listed as The Twenty-Well Stone & Brick Co. Abbeydale Road, Norton, Sheffield. Kelly's 1881 edition now records the address as Bradway, Norton, Sheffield. It is in Kelly's 1891 edition that Tedbar John Tinker is listed as proprietor of the works & this entry continues until the 1908 edition. 

Another newspaper cutting dated March 1898 & info from Michael relating to the sale of the freehold of the Twentywell Brickworks & Quarry and all outbuildings, plant and machinery, the Castle Inn and the adjacent row of dwellings and various properties at Bradway. The Quarry & Brickworks were leased to Tedbar Tinker with the lease shortly to expire.

Lot 1 below refers to the group of buildings which still stand today at the top of Twentywell Lane. The “corner grocer’s shop” now has a different use but is substantially unchanged since 1898. The “6 dwelling houses” listed includes the cottage occupied by the Slater family from the 1880s until after WWII. In 1898 the cottage was rented by my great grandfather William Slater, brick maker and his wife Annie Elizabeth and children and subsequently by his son, my grandfather Joseph Slater and his wife Annie Elizabeth and children including my mother Evelyn Slater born in the cottage in 1927. After Joseph Slater’s death at Twentywell Brick Works in 1928 his widow, my grandmother, continued with the tenancy until she remarried and moved to Sheffield.

Tedbar Tinker may have purchased the quarry & brickworks himself at this date with his lease ready to expiry, but at this moment I do not have this confirmation. He may have carried on leasing the land from the new owners.  

The next entry I have for the works is in Kelly's 1928 edition when the listing is Twentywell Brick Co. Twentywell Lane, Dore, Sheffield & this entry continues to the 1935 edition. Tedbar's works closed in 1939 but it was the mid 1950's before the buildings & office were demolished. A housing estate now occupies this site.

Photo by Frank Lawson.

Malcolm Adlington has contacted me with information gathered by his relation Michael Hardy about his ancestors accidental death while working at Tedbar Tinker's Twentywell Brickworks in November 1928. 
Sorry about the image quality. Joseph Slater died while he was cleaning & oiling the plant before the shift started & the go ahead for the machinery to be started had been given resulting in Joseph falling into the machinery.

Malcolm has also sent me this 1930's photo of Joseph's children together with their friends the Wragg family in their garden of the works owned cottage. Note the 20 Well bricks displayed on the wall.

A Twentywell's advert sent by Malcolm, possibly dated late 1870's / 1880's. 

Photo by Malcolm Adlington.

Photographed in Brimington, Chesterfield.

Many thanks to Malcolm Adlington for sending me his family history for this post which was researched & collated by his relation Michael Hardy, who is a grandson of Joseph Slater. Also thanks to Michael for the information he has sent me directly.

Klondyke Brick Co.

Photo by Frank Lawson.

The wonderfully named Klondyke Brick Company is listed in White's 1905 edition on Middlewood Road, Wadsley Bridge in Sheffield followed by the 1908 edition as the Klondyke Brick Works, Middlewood Road. 
The name of this brickworks may have come from the nearby Klondyke Villas which were built in 1902. In 1912 the works is recorded as being owned by W.J. Patchett & then followed by G. Beaumont. By 1919 the works was now owned by Daniel Doncaster & Son & he stamped his bricks D.D. with a diamond between the D's. Daniel is listed in Kelly's 1923 edition at the Klondyke Brickworks, Middlewood Road, Hillsborough, Sheffield with the works closing in 1936. The site now has houses built on it. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.

1900 O.S. map showing the location of the Klondyke brickworks situated near to Sheffield Wednesday's football ground & just across the road from the Don Brick Works, which I will cover later.

Photo by MF from the Frank Lawson Collection.

With this brick being marked Klondyke Brick Works it may have been made after 1908.

Nunnery Colliery Co.

 Photo by MF from the David Penney Collection.

Nunnery Colliery was sunk in the early 1860’s close to the city centre of Sheffield & a brickworks was established in the early 1900’s, producing half a million bricks per month. The colliery & brickworks were Nationalised in 1947 with the pit closing in 1953 & I also expect the brickworks closed at the same time. Today Parkway Avenue runs through the middle of this site with industrial units built on both sides.

  © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1900.
The course of one of the railway lines which run to the north of the colliery is now the tram route into the city centre & the Sheffield Parkway road now enters the city to the south of the colliery through the word Lane in Nunnery Lane.

 Photo by Frank Lawson.

Photo by MF from the David Penney Collection.

Produced at the colliery after 1947 with it being marked NCB - National Coal Board.

Webster & Co.

Photo taken at Barlborough Heritage Centre.

This brickworks is recorded in Kelly's 1923 to 1935 editions as Webster & Co, (Sheffield) Limited, manufacturers of silica bricks, fire bricks, magnesite, bricks, gangster, compo & building bricks at the Marriott Wood Works, Archer Road, Sheffield & trading as "Webco, Sheffield." 
Just to note John Gregory & Son are listed in White's 1901, 1905 & 1908 editions as owning the Marriott Wood Works before Webster & Co took over in 1923 & I will cover Gregory & Son who also owned other brickworks in Sheffield in my next Sheffield post.

© Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey 1920.

1920 map showing the location of Webster's brickworks on Archer Road which I have coloured yellow. Also within the coloured area on this map is the marked Victoria Works & this was owned by the Laycock Engineering Co. but I am unsure which where their buildings.

A photo of the brickworks on Picture Sheffield can be seen at this link.;EQUALS;s12412&pos=2&action=zoom If you click on the zoom image tab, it opens a new page with a closer view of the brickworks.

Henry Crapper & The Wisewood Brick Co/Brick & Tile Co.

I first start with events that took place in 1864 when the Great Sheffield Flood took place. An account of which can be read at this link & from where I have gathered the following information.

On the 11th & 12th of March 1864 the newly built Dale Dyke reservoir burst it's banks & flooded the Loxley valley resulting in loss of life, damage to houses & industrial properties. One of the claims for compensation was by Thomas Marshall & William Crapper who owned a brickworks in Loxley & were described as clay & brick dealers. Marshall & Crapper were paid compensation which totalled £1,600 pounds for the loss of their buildings, brick production etc. A full list can be read at this link.

Marshall & Crapper are listed in White's 1879 edition as brickmakers in Loxley, Sheffield. We then find William Crapper & Thomas Marshall went their separate ways possibly before 1893. Thomas Marshall & Co are next listed in  Whites 1901 edition at Storrs Bridge, Loxley. 

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

With Frank Lawson photographing this H. & W. C. brick I am taking it that William is now in partnership with Henry Crapper & possibly they are brothers. Henry Crapper is listed in Kelly's 1893 edition at Wisewood, Sheffield & the location of their works can be seen on the surveyed 1901/03 map below. 

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey surveyed 1901/03 published 1906.

Another example of one of Henry & William's bricks.

With these two bricks being stamped exor, both Henry & William must have passed away. 

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

White's 1901 edition records the entry of Crappers Brick Co. Lim. with Robert Craig as secetary & registered office of 22 York Street, Sheffield & at Loxley. So I am taking it that Robert Craig was administrating the Crappers Brick Co. after William & Henry's deaths. Then further down the brick & tile makers section in this 1901 edition is the first listing for the newly formed Wisewood Brick Co. at Wisewood, Loxley, Sheffield with William Frankish as Managing Director. So it looks like this new company had taken over the Crappers' works in 1901 & an example of this new Company's bricks is shown below.

Photo taken at the Barlborough Heritage Centre.

The Wisewood Brick Co. is next recorded in the London Gazette as being voluntarily wound up at an extraordinary General Meeting of the Company on the 16th February 1904.

White's 1905 edition again records the Crappers Brick Co. & Robert Craig, but this time just with the office address. So the Crappers Brick Co. may have only existed as a registered company at this date. Also in this 1905 edition is a listing for The Wisewood Brick & Tile Co. at Wisewood, Loxley, Sheffield. So it now appears that a new company had been established in 1905 at the works after the Wisewood Brick Co. had been wound up in 1904. White's 1908 now records this works as the Wisewood Brick & Tile Co. Loxley Road, Malin Bridge.

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

This frog design was used by many local brick companies & we can date it's introduction to around 1910. The Wisewood Brick & Tile Co. do not appear in White's 1919 edition & I have also found that the Boundary Rolling Mill had been built on the site of the former brickworks. So the brickworks had closed sometime between 1908 & 1919.

C. Keyworth.

Photo taken at the Barlborough Heritage Centre.

Charles Keyworth is recorded as the proprietor of the New Patent Plastic Brick Company on Halifax Road, Wadsley Bridge, Sheffield from 1898 to 1913. Mrs Elizabeth Brindley is then recorded as proprietress at the works in 1916. A gentleman on the Sheffield Forum website has put forward the theory that Mrs. Elizabeth Brindley could have been Charles' married daughter & had taken over the works after his death. The Wadsley Bridge works on Halifax Road is then recorded as being operated by the Sheffield Brick Co. in Kelly's 1919 edition & this works is still shown as being in operation on a map dated 1948.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey revised 1901.

Photo by MF courtesy of the Frank Lawson Collection.

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

The New Patent Plastic Brick Co. example above was more than likely made during Charles tenure of the works. The 'New Patent Plastic' part of the company's name suggests that the works was now using a Hoffmann type kiln to produce their bricks. Many brick companies which includes Nottingham, Sheffield, Leeds & Leicester to name a few added Patent to their company name after they had built these patented Hoffman kilns which vastly increased their brick production output.

 Photo by Frank Lawson. 

Frank has found two examples of these key bricks in Sheffield, so he has suggested that Charles Keyworth may have made these bricks with the key mark being his trade mark.

Photo by Frank Lawson. 

This Wadsley Bridge Brick Co. brick could have been made by Charles before he renamed his company to the New Patent Plastic Brick Co. From the few trade directories that I do have dated 1901 to 1908, the works is listed as the N.P.P. Brick Co., so I am working on the theory that the company could have existed just as the Wadsley Bridge Brick Co. before 1901. Only by finding earlier trade directories will resolve this matter. 

Don Brick Co.

  Photo by Frank Lawson. 

The Don Brick Co. is listed in White's 1901 edition at Leppings Bridge, Sheffield.

 © Crown Copyright. Reproduced by permission of NLS/Ordnance Survey  1900. 

1900 map showing the location of the Don Brick Works on Leppings Lane which was situated across the road from Sheffield Wednesday's football ground.

I wish to thank the following in helping me bring the history of these Sheffield brickmakers to the web :-

Malcolm Adlington & Michael Hardy - 20 Well family info & photos

Frank Lawson - photos & info

Barlborough Heritage Centre - photos

The contributors of the Sheffield History website